PrairieLearn Elements for use in question.html

When writing questions, there exists a core pool of elements that provides common structures associated with assessment items. These elements can be split into three distinct groups: submission, decorative, and conditional. Within this document, all of PrairieLearn's elements are displayed alongside links to sample elements within the example course. To build your own PrairieLearn element, please see Question Element Writing documentation.

Submission elements act as a way to receive a response or input from the student. These elements are traditionally referred to as form input fields. PrairieLearn presently provides the following templated input field elements:

  • pl-multiple-choice: Selecting only one option from a list.
  • pl-checkbox: Selecting multiple options from a list.
  • pl-number-input: Fill in a numerical value within a specific tolerance level such as 3.14, -1.921, and so on.
  • pl-integer-input: Fill in an integer value such as -71, 0, 5, 21, and so on.
  • pl-symbolic-input: Fill in a symbolic value such as x^2, sin(z), mc^2, and so on.
  • pl-string-input: Fill in a string value such as "Illinois", "GATTACA", "computer", and so on.
  • pl-matrix-component-input: Fill in a matrix using grid that has an input area for each element.
  • pl-matrix-input: Supply a matrix in a supported programming language format.
  • pl-file-editor: Provide an in-browser code editor for writing and submitting code.
  • pl-file-upload: Provide a submission area to obtain a file with a specific naming scheme.
  • pl-threejs: Enables 3D scene display and problem submission.

Decorative elements are meant to improve how the question is displayed to students. Elements under this category include ways to specify question markup, images, files, and code display. The following decorative elements are available:

  • pl-code: Displays code rendered with the appropriate syntax highlighting.
  • pl-figure: Embed an image file in the question.
  • pl-file-download: Enable file downloads for data-centric questions.
  • pl-variable-output: Displays matrices in code form for supported programming languages.
  • pl-matrix-latex: Displays matrices using appropriate LaTeX commands for use in a mathematical expression.
  • pl-prairiedraw-figure: Show a PrairieDraw figure.
  • pl-python-variable: Display formatted output of Python variables and pandas data frames.
  • pl-graph: Displays graphs, either using GraphViz DOT notation or with an adjacency matrix.
  • pl-drawing: Creates an image from pre-defined collection of graphic objects
  • pl-overlay: Allows layering existing elements on top of one another in specified positions.
  • pl-external-grader-variables: Displays expected and given variables for externally graded questions.

Conditional elements are meant to improve the feedback and question structure. These elements conditionally render their content depending on the question state. The following Conditional elements are available:

Note: PrairieLearn Elements listed next have been deprecated. These elements will be removed at a future date.

  • pl-variable-score: Displays a partial score for a submitted element.
    • Deprecated as submission elements in v3 all have score display options.

Submission Elements


pl-multiple-choice element

A pl-multiple-choice element selects one correct answer and zero or more incorrect answers and displays them in a random order as radio buttons.

Sample Element

<pl-multiple-choice answers-name="acc" weight="1">
  <pl-answer correct="false">positive</pl-answer>
  <pl-answer correct="true">negative</pl-answer>
  <pl-answer correct="false">zero</pl-answer>
</pl-multiple-choice>

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
answers-name string Variable name to store data in.
weight integer 1 Weight to use when computing a weighted average score over elements.
inline boolean false List answer choices on a single line instead of as separate paragraphs.
number-answers integer special The total number of answer choices to display. Defaults to displaying one correct answer and all incorrect answers.
fixed-order boolean false Disable the randomization of answer order.

Inside the pl-multiple-choice element, each choice must be specified with a pl-answer that has attributes:

Attribute Type Default Description
correct boolean false Is this a correct answer to the question?

Example implementations

See also

pl-checkbox element

A pl-checkbox element displays a subset of the answers in a random order as checkboxes.

Sample Element

<pl-checkbox answers-name="vpos" weight="1">
  <pl-answer correct="true">A-B</pl-answer>
  <pl-answer correct="true">B-C</pl-answer>
  <pl-answer>               C-D</pl-answer>
  <pl-answer correct="true">D-E</pl-answer>
  <pl-answer>               E-F</pl-answer>
  <pl-answer>               F-G</pl-answer>
</pl-checkbox>

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
answers-name string Variable name to store data in.
weight integer 1 Weight to use when computing a weighted average score over elements.
inline boolean false List answer choices on a single line instead of as separate paragraphs.
number-answers integer special The total number of answer choices to display. Defaults to displaying all answers.
min-correct integer special The minimum number of correct answers to display. Defaults to displaying all correct answers.
max-correct integer special The maximum number of correct answers to display. Defaults to displaying all correct answers.
fixed-order boolean false Disable the randomization of answer order.
partial-credit boolean false Enable partial credit scores. By default, the choice of grading method is "all-or-nothing".
partial-credit-method string 'PC' Two grading methods for partial credit: 'EDC' (Every Decision Counts) and 'PC' (Percent Correct). See explanation below.
hide-help-text boolean false Help text with hint regarding the selection of answers. Popover button describes the selected grading algorithm ('all-or-nothing', 'EDC' or 'PC')
detailed-help-text boolean false Display detailed information in help text about the number of options to choose.
hide-answer-panel boolean false Option to not display the correct answer in the correct panel.

Inside the pl-checkbox element, each choice must be specified with a pl-answer that has attributes:

Attribute Type Default Description
correct boolean false Is this a correct answer to the question?

Details

Two grading methods are available when using partial-credit="true":

  • 'EDC' (Every Decision Counts): in this method, the checkbox answers are considered as a list of true/false answers. If n is the total number of answers, each answer is assigned 1/n points. The total score is the summation of the points for every correct answer selected and every incorrect answer left unselected.

  • 'PC' (Percent Correct): in this method, 1 point is added for each correct answer that is marked as correct and 1 point is subtracted for each incorrect answer that is marked as correct. The final score is the resulting summation of points divided by the total number of correct answers. The minimum final score is set to zero.

Example implementations

See also


pl-number-input element

Fill in the blank field that allows for numeric value input within specific tolerances.

Sample Element

question.html

<pl-number-input answers-name="ans_rtol" label="$x =$">
</pl-number-input>

server.py

import random 

def generate(data):

  # Generate a random value
  x = random.uniform(1, 2)

  # Answer to fill in the blank input
  data["correct_answers"]["ans_rtol"] = x

question.html

<pl-number-input answers-name="ans_sig" comparison="sigfig" digits="2" label="$x =$">
</pl-number-input>

server.py

import random 

def generate(data):

  # Generate a random value
  x = random.uniform(1, 2)

  # Answer to fill in the blank input
  data["correct_answers"]["ans_sig"] = round(x, 2)

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
answers-name string Variable name to store data in.
weight integer 1 Weight to use when computing a weighted average score over elements.
correct-answer float special Correct answer for grading. Defaults to data["correct_answers"][answers-name].
label text A prefix to display before the input box (e.g., label="$F =$").
suffix text A suffix to display after the input box (e.g., suffix="$\rm m/s^2$").
display "block" or "inline" "inline" How to display the input field.
comparison "relabs", "sigfig", or "decdig" "relabs" How to grade. "relabs" uses relative ("rtol") and absolute ("atol") tolerances. "sigfig" and "decdig" use "digits" significant or decimal digits.
rtol number 1e-2 Relative tolerance for comparison="relabs".
atol number 1e-8 Absolute tolerance for comparison="relabs".
digits integer 2 number of digits that must be correct for comparison="sigfig" or comparison="decdig".
allow-complex boolean false Whether or not to allow complex numbers as answers. If the correct answer ans is a complex object, you should use import prairielearn as pl and data['correct_answer'][answers-name] = pl.to_json(ans).
show-help-text boolean true Show the question mark at the end of the input displaying required input parameters.
show-placeholder boolean true Show the placeholder text that shows the default comparison.
size integer 35 Size of the input box.
show-correct-answer boolean true Whether to show the correct answer in the submitted answers panel.
allow-fractions boolean true Whether to allow answers expressed as a rational number of the format a/b.

Example implementations

See also


pl-integer-input element

Fill in the blank field that requires an integer input.

Sample Element

question.html

<pl-integer-input answers-name="int_value" label="$y =$"></pl-integer-input>

server.py

import random 

def generate(data):

  # Generate a random whole number
  x = random.randint(1, 10)

  # Answer to fill in the blank input
  data["correct_answers"]["int_value"] = x

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
answers-name string Variable name to store data in.
weight integer 1 Weight to use when computing a weighted average score over elements.
correct-answer float special Correct answer for grading. Defaults to data["correct_answers"][answers-name].
label text A prefix to display before the input box (e.g., label="$x =$").
suffix text A suffix to display after the input box (e.g., suffix="items").
display "block" or "inline" "inline" How to display the input field.
size integer 35 Size of the input box.
show-help-text boolean true Show the question mark at the end of the input displaying required input parameters.

Example implementations

See also


pl-symbolic-input element

Fill in the blank field that allows for mathematical symbol input.

Sample Element

question.html

<pl-symbolic-input answers-name="symbolic_math" variables="x, y" label="$z =$"></pl-symbolic-input>

server.py

import prairielearn as pl
import sympy

def generate(data):

  # Declare math symbols
  x, y = sympy.symbols('x y')

  # Describe the equation
  z = x + y + 1

  # Answer to fill in the blank input stored as JSON.
  data['correct_answer']['symbolic_math'] = pl.to_json(z)

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
answers-name string Variable name to store data in. If the correct answer ans is a sympy object, you should use import prairielearn as pl and data['correct_answer'][answers-name] = pl.to_json(ans).
weight integer 1 Weight to use when computing a weighted average score over elements.
correct-answer float special Correct answer for grading. Defaults to data["correct_answers"][answers-name].
label text A prefix to display before the input box (e.g., label="$F =$").
display "block" or "inline" "inline" How to display the input field.
variables string A comma-delimited list of symbols that can be used in the symbolic expression.
allow-complex boolean false Whether complex numbers (expressions with i or j as the imaginary unit) are allowed.
imaginary-unit-for-display string i The imaginary unit that is used for display. It must be either i or j. Again, this is only for display. Both i and j can be used by the student in their submitted answer, when allow-complex="true".
size integer 35 Size of the input box.
show-help-text boolean true Show the question mark at the end of the input displaying required input parameters.

Details

Correct answers are best created as sympy expressions and converted to json using pl.to_json(data_here).

It is also possible to specify the correct answer simply as a string, e.g., x + y + 1.

Do not include i or j in the list of variables if allow-complex="true". Do not include any other reserved name in your list of variables (e, pi, cos, sin, etc.) The element code will check for (and disallow) conflicts between your list of variables and reserved names.

Example implementations

See also


pl-string-input element

Fill in the blank field that allows for string value input.

Sample Element

question.html

<pl-string-input answers-name="string_value" label="Prairie"></pl-string-input>

server.py

def generate(data):

  # Answer to fill in the blank input
  data["correct_answers"]["string_value"] = "Learn"

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
answers-name string Variable name to store data in.
weight integer 1 Weight to use when computing a weighted average score over elements.
correct-answer string special Correct answer for grading. Defaults to data["correct_answers"][answers-name].
label text A prefix to display before the input box (e.g., label="$x =$").
suffix text A suffix to display after the input box (e.g., suffix="items").
display "block" or "inline" "inline" How to display the input field.
remove-leading-trailing boolean false Whether or not to remove leading and trailing blank spaces from the input string.
remove-spaces boolean false Whether or not to remove blank spaces from the input string.
allow-blank boolean false Whether or not an empty input box is allowed. By default, empty input boxes will not be graded (invalid format).
ignore-case boolean false Whether or not to enforce case sensitivity (e.g. "hello" != "HELLO").
placeholder text None Hint displayed inside the input box describing the expected type of input.
size integer 35 Size of the input box.
show-help-text boolean true Show the question mark at the end of the input displaying required input parameters.

Example implementations

See also


pl-matrix-component-input element

A pl-matrix-component-input element displays a grid of input fields with the same shape of the variable stored in answers-name (only 2D arrays of real numbers can be stored in answers-name).

Sample Element

question.html

<pl-matrix-component-input answers-name="matrixA" label="$A=$"></pl-matrix-component-input>

server.py

import prairielearn as pl
import numpy as np

def generate(data):

  # Generate a random 3x3 matrix
  mat = np.random.random((3, 3))

  # Answer to each matrix entry converted to JSON
  data['correct_answers']['matrixA'] = pl.to_json(mat)

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
answers-name string Variable name to store data in.
weight integer 1 Weight to use when computing a weighted average score over elements.
label text A prefix to display before the input box (e.g., label="$F =$").
comparison "relabs", "sigfig", or "decdig" "relabs" How to grade. "relabs" uses relative ("rtol") and absolute ("atol") tolerances. "sigfig" and "decdig" use "digits" significant or decimal digits.
rtol number 1e-2 Relative tolerance for comparison="relabs".
atol number 1e-8 Absolute tolerance for comparison="relabs".
digits integer 2 number of digits that must be correct for comparison="sigfig" or comparison="decdig".
allow-partial-credit boolean false Whether or not to allow credit for each correct matrix component. By default, the variable is graded as correct only when all matrix components are correct.
allow-feedback boolean allow-partial-credit Whether or not to allow feedback indicating which matrix components are incorrect. The default value of allow-feedback is the value of allow-partial-credit.
allow-fractions boolean true Whether to allow answers expressed as a rational number of the format a/b.

Details

The question will only be graded when all matrix components are entered.

Example implementations

See also


pl-matrix-input element

A pl-matrix-input element displays an input field that accepts a matrix (i.e., a 2-D array) expressed in a supported programming language format (either MATLAB or Python's numpy).

Sample Element

question.html

<pl-matrix-input answers-name="matrixB" label="$B=$"></pl-matrix-input>

server.py

import prairielearn as pl
import numpy as np

def generate(data):
  # Randomly generate a 2x2 matrix
  matrixB = np.random.random((2, 2))

  # Answer exported to question.
  data['correct_answers']['matrixB'] = pl.to_json(matrixB)

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
answers-name string Variable name to store data in.
weight integer 1 Weight to use when computing a weighted average score over elements.
label text A prefix to display before the input box (e.g., label="$F =$").
comparison "relabs", "sigfig", or "decdig" "relabs" How to grade. "relabs" uses relative ("rtol") and absolute ("atol") tolerances. "sigfig" and "decdig" use "digits" significant or decimal digits.
rtol number 1e-2 Relative tolerance for comparison="relabs".
atol number 1e-8 Absolute tolerance for comparison="relabs".
digits integer 2 number of digits that must be correct for comparison="sigfig" or comparison="decdig".
allow-complex boolean false Whether or not to allow complex numbers as answers. If the correct answer ans is a complex object, you should use import prairielearn as pl and data['correct_answer'][answers-name] = pl.to_json(ans).
show-help-text boolean true Show the question mark at the end of the input displaying required input parameters.

Details

pl-matrix-input parses a matrix entered in either MATLAB or Python formats. The following are valid input format options:

MATLAB format:

[1.23; 4.56]

Python format:

[[1.23], [4.56]]

Note: A scalar will be accepted either as a matrix of size 1 x 1 (e.g., [1.23] or [[1.23]]) or just as a single number (e.g., 1.23).

In the answer panel, a pl-matrix-input element displays the correct answer, allowing the user to switch between matlab and python format.

In the submission panel, a pl-matrix-input element displays either the submitted answer (in the same format that it was submitted, either MATLAB or Python), or a note that the submitted answer was invalid (with an explanation of why).

Example implementations

See also


pl-file-editor element

Provides an in-browser file editor that's compatible with the other file elements and external grading system.

Sample Element

<pl-file-editor
  file-name="fib.py"
  ace-mode="ace/mode/python"
  ace-theme="ace/theme/monokai"
>
def fib(n):
    pass
</pl-file-editor>

Customizations

Attribute Type Default description
file-name string - The name of this file; will be used to store this file in the _files submitted answer
ace-mode string None Specifies an Ace editor mode to enable things like intelligent code indenting and syntax highlighting; see the full list of modes here.
ace-theme string ace/theme/chrome Specifies an Ace editor theme; see the full list of themes here.
source-file-name string None Name of the source file with existing code to be displayed in the browser text editor (instead of writing the existing code between the element tags as illustrated in the above code snippet).
min-lines integer None Minimum number of lines the editor should show initially.
max-lines integer None Maximum number of lines the editor should display at once. Must be greater than min-lines.
auto-resize boolean true Automatically expand the editor panel to ensure all lines are present. Overrides any value set by max-lines and establishes a default of 18 lines for min-lines if not supplied.
preview string None If set, provides a live preview mode for editing markup languages. Currently supports html or markdown.

Details

When using auto-resize, consider specifying a custom min-lines or pre-populating the code editor window with a code sample. This will initialize the editor area with a sufficient number of lines to display all of the code simultaneously without the need for scrolling.

Example implementations

See also


pl-file-upload element

Provides a way to accept file uploads as part of an answer. They will be stored in the format expected by externally graded questions.

Sample Element

<pl-file-upload file-names="foo.py, bar.c, filename with\, comma.txt"></pl-file-upload>

Customizations

Attribute Type Default description
answers-name string _file Variable name to store data in. For externally graded questions, you should rely on the default.
file-names CSV list "" List of files that should and must be submitted. Commas in a filename should be escaped with a backslash, and filenames cannot contain quotes.

Example implementations

See also


pl-threejs element

This element displays a 3D scene with objects that the student can (optionally) translate and/or rotate. It can be used only for output (e.g., as part of a question that asks for something else to be submitted). Or, it can be used for input (e.g., comparing a submitted pose of the body-fixed objects to a correct orientation). Information about the current pose can be hidden from the student and, if visible, can be displayed in a variety of formats, so the element can be used for many different types of questions.

Sample Element

<pl-threejs answer-name="a">
    <pl-threejs-stl file-name="MAKE_Robot_V6.stl" frame="body" scale="0.1"></pl-threejs-stl>
    <pl-threejs-stl file-name="MAKE_Robot_V6.stl" frame="body" scale="0.025" position="[-1,1,2]" orientation="[0,0,30]"></pl-threejs-stl>
    <pl-threejs-txt frame="body" position="[-1,1,2.6]" orientation="[0,0,30]">mini-me</pl-threejs-txt>
</pl-threejs>

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
answer-name string Variable name to store data in.
body-position list [0, 0, 0] Initial position of body as [x, y, z].
body-orientation list special Initial orientation of body. Defaults to zero orientation (body frame aligned with space frame). Interpretation depends on body-pose-format.
camera-position list [5, 2, 2] Initial position of camera as [x, y, z].
body-cantranslate boolean true If you can translate the body in the UI.
body-canrotate boolean true If you can rotate the body in the UI.
camera-canmove boolean true If you can move the camera (i.e., change the view) in the UI.
body-pose-format string rpy Determines how body-orientation is interpreted. If rpy then [roll, pitch, yaw]. If matrix then 3x3 rotation matrix [[...], [...], [...]]. If quaternion then [x, y, z, w]. If axisangle then [x, y, z, theta] where x, y, z are coordinates of axis and theta is angle.
answer-pose-format string rpy Determines how the answer data['correct_answer'][answer-name] is interpreted. If homogeneous, then the answer must be a 4x4 homogeneous transformation matrix [[...], [...], [...], [...]]. Otherwise, the answer must be a list with two elements. The first element must describe position as [x, y, z]. The second element must describe orientation, interpreted based on answer-pose-format. If rpy then [roll, pitch, yaw]. If matrix then 3x3 rotation matrix [[...], [...], [...]]. If quaternion then [x, y, z, w]. If axisangle then [x, y, z, theta] where x, y, z are coordinates of axis and theta is angle.
text-pose-format string matrix Determines how the pose of the body is displayed as text. If matrix then position is [x, y, z] and orientation is a 3x3 rotation matrix. If quaternion then position is [x, y, z] and orientation is [x, y, z, w]. If homogeneous then pose is a 4x4 homogeneous transformation matrix.
show-pose-in-question boolean true If the current pose of the body is displayed in the question panel.
show-pose-in-correct-answer boolean true If the current pose of the body is displayed in the correct answer panel.
show-pose-in-submitted-answer boolean true If the current pose of the body is displayed in the submitted answer panel.
tol-position float 0.5 Error in position must be no more than this for the answer to be marked correct.
tol-rotation float 5.0 Error in rotation must be no more than this for the answer to be marked correct.
grade boolean true If the element will be graded, i.e., if it is being used to ask a question. If grade is false, then this element will never produce any html in the answer panel or in the submission panel.

A pl-threejs-stl element inside a pl-threejs element allows you to add a mesh described by an stl file to the scene, and has these attributes:

Attribute Type Default Description
file-name string Name of .stl file.
file-directory string clientFilesQuestion Location of .stl file, either clientFilesCourse or clientFilesQuestion.
frame string body Which frame the object is fixed to, either body or space.
color color special Color of object as CSS string, defaults to #e84a27 if body-fixed and to #13294b if space-fixed.
opacity float special Opacity of object, defaults to 0.7 if body-fixed and to 0.4 if space-fixed.
position list [0, 0, 0] Position of object as [x, y, z].
orientation list special Orientation of object. Defaults to zero orientation. Interpretation depends on format.
format string rpy Determines how orientation is interpreted. If rpy then [roll, pitch, yaw]. If matrix then 3x3 rotation matrix [[...], [...], [...]]. If quaternion then [x, y, z, w]. If axisangle then [x, y, z, theta] where x, y, z are coordinates of axis and theta is angle.

A pl-threejs-txt element inside a pl-threejs element allows you to add whatever text appears between the <pl-threejs-txt> ... </pl-threejs-txt> tags as a mesh to the scene, and has these attributes:

Attribute Type Default Description
frame string body Which frame the object is fixed to, either body or space.
color color special Color of object as CSS string, defaults to #e84a27 if body-fixed and to #13294b if space-fixed.
opacity float special Opacity of object, defaults to 0.7 if body-fixed and to 0.4 if space-fixed.
position list [0, 0, 0] Position of object as [x, y, z].
orientation list special Orientation of object. Defaults to zero orientation. Interpretation depends on format.
format string rpy Determines how orientation is interpreted. If rpy then [roll, pitch, yaw]. If matrix then 3x3 rotation matrix [[...], [...], [...]]. If quaternion then [x, y, z, w]. If axisangle then [x, y, z, theta] where x, y, z are coordinates of axis and theta is angle.

Details

Note that a 3D scene is also created to show each submitted answer. This means that if there are many submitted answers, the page will load slowly.

Example implementations

See also

Decorative Elements


pl-code element

Display an embedded or file-based block of code with syntax highlighting and line callouts.

Sample Element

<pl-code language="python">
def square(x):
    return x * x
</pl-code>

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
language string The programming language syntax highlighting to use. See below for options.
no-highlight boolean false Disable highlighting.
source-file-name text - Name of the source file with existing code to be displayed as a code block (instead of writing the existing code between the element tags as illustrated in the above code snippet).
prevent-select booelan false Applies methods to make the source code more difficult to copy, like preventing selection or right-clicking. Note that the source code is still accessible in the page source, which will always be visible to students.
highlight-lines text - Apply a distinctive background highlight the specified lines of code. Accepts input like 4, 1-3,5-10, and 1,2-5,20.
highlight-lines-color text #b3d7ff Specifies the color of highlighted lines of code.

Details

The pl-code element uses the Pygments library for syntax highlighting, a full list of supported languages can be found here.

Common Pitfalls

The HTML specification disallows inserting special characters onto the page (i.e. <, >, &), and using these characters with inline code may break rendering. To fix this, either escape the characters (&lt;, &gt;, &amp;, more here), or load code snippets from external files into pl-code with source-file-name attribute.

Example implementations

See also


pl-python-variable element

Displays the value of a Python variable, with formatted display of Pandas DataFrames.

Sample Elements

Display Python variable value

question.html

<pl-python-variable params-name="variable"></pl-python-variable>

server.py

import prairielearn as pl

def generate(data):
  data_dictionary = { 'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3 }
  data['params']['variable'] = pl.to_json(data_dictionary)

Display of a Pandas DataFrame

question.html

<pl-python-variable params-name="df" prefix="df = "></pl-python-variable>

server.py

import prairielearn as pl
import pandas as pd

def generate(data):
  d = {'col1': [1, 2], 'col2': [3, 4]}
  df = pd.DataFrame(data=d)
  data['params']['df'] = pl.to_json(df)

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
params-name string The name of the key in data['params'] to get a value from
text string False Force the variable to be displayed in a textual format, as given by repr(var). By default, special types like DataFrames will be rendered as HTML tables.
prefix string (empty) Any prefix to append to the output in text mode.
suffix string (empty) Any suffix to append to the output in text mode.
no-highlight string False Disable syntax highlighting in text mode.

Details

As of right now, the element supports displaying either Pandas DataFrames as an HTML table or Python objects via repr(). When setting a parameter to a DataFrame, use PrairieLearn's built in pl.to_json().

Example implementations

See also

pl-figure element

Display a statically or dynamically generated image.

Sample Element

<!-- show a figure from an existing file -->
<pl-figure file-name="figure.png" directory="clientFilesCourse"></pl-figure>

<!-- show a figure from a file that is generated by code -->
<pl-figure file-name="figure.png" type="dynamic"></pl-figure>

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
file-name string Name of image file.
type text 'static' Type of file, either 'static' (an existing file) or 'dynamic' (a file generated by element or server code).
directory text "clientFilesQuestion" The directory that contains the file, either 'clientFilesQuestion' or 'clientFilesCourse' (see client and server files). A directory cannot be specified if type='dynamic'.
width number None Width of image (e.g., '250px').

Dynamically generated figures

If type="dynamic", then the contents of the image file must be returned by a function file() that is located either in element code or in server.py. The contents must be a string (with utf-8 encoding), a bytes-like object, or a file-like object. The filename will be available to this function as data['filename']. For example, to generate the figure.png for the dynamic pl-figure above, this code might appear in server.py to generate a "fake" figure.png:

def file(data):
    if data['filename']=='figure.png':
        plt.plot([1,2,3],[3,4,-2])
        buf = io.BytesIO()
        plt.savefig(buf,format='png')
        return buf

If file() does not return anything, it will be treated as if file() returned the empty string.

Example implementations

See also


pl-file-download element

Provide a download link to a static or dynamically generated file.

Sample Element

<!-- allow students to download an existing file -->
<pl-file-download file-name="data.txt" directory="clientFilesCourse"></pl-file-download>

<!-- allow students to download a file that is generated by code -->
<pl-file-download file-name="data.txt" type="dynamic"></pl-file-download>

<!-- allow students to open an existing file in a new tab -->
<pl-file-download file-name="data.txt" directory="clientFilesCourse" force-download="false"></pl-file-download>

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
file-name string Name of file to download.
label text file-name Alternate text for file download link (e.g., label="click here to download").
type text "static" Type of file, either "static" (an existing file) or "dynamic" (a file generated by element or server code).
directory text "clientFilesQuestion" The directory that contains the file, either "clientFilesQuestion" or "clientFilesCourse" (see client and server files). A directory cannot be specified if type="dynamic".
force-download boolean true Force a file download. Otherwise, allow the browser to open the file in a new tab.

Details

If type="dynamic", then the contents of the file must be returned by a function file() that is located either in element code or in server.py. The contents must be a string (with utf-8 encoding), a bytes-like object, or a file-like object. The filename will be available to this function as data['filename']. For example, this code might appear in server.py to generate a file called data.txt:

def file(data):
    if data['filename']=='data.txt':
        return 'This data is generated by code.'

If file() does not return anything, it will be treated as if file() returned the empty string.

Example implementations

See also


pl-variable-output element

Displays a list of variables that are formatted for import into the supported programming languages (e.g. MATLAB, Mathematica, Python, or R).

Sample Element

question.html

<pl-variable-output digits="3">
    <variable params-name="matrixC">C</variable>
    <variable params-name="matrixD">D</variable>
</pl-variable-output>

server.py

import prairielearn as pl
import numpy as np

def generate(data):

  # Create fixed matrix
  matrixC = np.matrix('5 6; 7 8')
  matrixD = np.matrix('-1 4; 3 2')
  # Random matrices can be generated with:
  # mat = np.random.random((2, 2))

  # Export each matrix as a JSON object for the question view.
  data['params']['matrixC'] = pl.to_json(matrixC)
  data['params']['matrixD'] = pl.to_json(matrixD)

Customizations

Attributes for <pl-variable-output>:

Attribute Type Default Description
digits integer Number of digits to display after the decimal.
default-tab string 'matlab' Select the active tab.
show-matlab boolean true Toggles the display of the Matlab tab.
show-mathematica boolean true Toggles the display of the Mathematica tab.
show-python boolean true Toggles the display of the Python tab.
show-r boolean true Toggles the display of the R tab.

Attributes for <variable> (one of these for each variable to display):

Attribute Type Default Description
params-name string Name of variable in data['params'] to display.
comment string Comment to add after the displayed variable.
digits integer Number of digits to display after the decimal for the variable.

Details

This element displays a list of variables inside <pre> tags that are formatted for import into either MATLAB, Mathematica, Python, or R (the user can switch between them). Each variable must be either a scalar or a 2D numpy array (expressed as a list). Each variable will be prefixed by the text that appears between the <variable> and </variable> tags, followed by =. Below are samples of the format displayed under each language tab.

MATLAB format:

A = [1.23; 4.56]; % matrix

Mathematica format:

A = [1.23; 4.56]; (* matrix *)

Python format:

import numpy as np

A = np.array([[1.23], [4.56]]) # matrix

R format:

A = c(1.23, 4.56) # vector
A = matrix(c(1.23, 4.56, 8.90, 1.23), nrow = 2, ncol = 2, byrow = TRUE) # matrix

If a variable v is a complex object, you should use import prairielearn as pl and data['params'][params-name] = pl.to_json(v).

Example implementations

See also


pl-matrix-latex element

Displays a scalar or 2D numpy array of numbers in LaTeX using mathjax.

Sample Element

question.html

$$C = <pl-matrix-latex params-name="matrixC"></pl-matrix-latex>$$

server.py

import prairielearn as pl
import numpy as np

def generate(data):

  # Construct a matrix
  mat = np.matrix('1 2; 3 4')

  # Export matrix to be displayed in question.html
  data['params']['matrixC'] = pl.to_json(mat)

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
params-name string Name of variable in data['params'] to display.
presentation-type string 'f' Number display format. If presentation-type is 'sigfig', each number is formatted using the to_precision module to digits significant figures. Otherwise, each number is formatted as '{:.{digits}{presentation-type}}'.
digits integer "2" Number of digits to display according to the choice of presentation-type

Details

Depending on whether data['params'] contains either a scalar or 2D numpy array of numbers, one of the following will be returned.

  • scalar
    • a string containing the scalar not wrapped in brackets.
  • numpy 2D array
    • a string formatted using the bmatrix LaTeX style.

Sample LaTeX formatting:

\begin{bmatrix} ... & ... \\ ... & ... \end{bmatrix}

As an example, consider the need to display the following matrix operations:

x = [A][b] + [c]

In this case, we would write:

${\bf x} = <pl-matrix-latex params-name="A" digits="1"></pl-matrix-latex>
<pl-matrix-latex params-name="b" digits="1"></pl-matrix-latex>
+ <pl-matrix-latex params-name="c" digits="1"></pl-matrix-latex>$

Example implementations

See also


pl-prairiedraw-figure element

Create and display a prairiedraw image.

Sample Element

<pl-prairiedraw-figure script-name="drawFigure.js" param-names="r1,r2,isHorizontal" width="900" height="600" />

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
script-name string - Name of PrairieDraw script.
param-names string None Comma-separated list of parameters to make available to PrairieDraw.
width integer 500 Width of the drawing element.
height integer 300 Height of the drawing element.

Details

The provided script-name corresponds to a file located within the director for the question. Parameter names are keys stored in data["params"] in server.py (i.e., those available for templating within question.html).

Example implementations

See also


pl-graph element

Using the viz.js library, create Graphviz DOT visualizations.

Sample Elements

question.html

<pl-graph>
digraph G {
  A -> B
}
</pl-graph>

question.html

<pl-graph params-name-matrix="matrix" params-name-labels="labels"></pl-graph>

server.py

import prairielearn as pl
import numpy as np

def generate(data):
  mat = np.random.random((3, 3))
  mat = mat / np.linalg.norm(mat, 1, axis=0)
  data['params']['labels'] = pl.to_json(['A', 'B', 'C'])
  data['params']['matrix'] = pl.to_json(mat)

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
engine string dot The rendering engine to use; supports circo, dot, fdp, neato, osage, and twopi.
params-name-matrix string None The the name of a parameter containing the adjacency matrix to use as input for the graph.
params-name-labels string None When using an adjacency matrix, the parameter that contains the labels for each node.
weights boolean None When using an adjacency matrix, whether or not to show the edge weights. By default will automatically show weights for stochastic matrices (when they are not binary 0/1).
weights-digits integer "2" When using an adjacency matrix, how many digits to show for the weights.
weights-presentation-type string 'f' Number display format for the weights when using an adjacency matrix. If presentation-type is 'sigfig', each number is formatted using the to_precision module to digits significant figures. Otherwise, each number is formatted as {:.{digits}{presentation-type}}.

Example implementations

See also


pl-drawing element

Creates a canvas (drawing space) that can display images from a collection of pre-defined drawing objects. Users can also add drawing objects to the canvas for grading.

See the pl-drawing documentation for details.


pl-overlay element

The overlay element allows existing PrairieLearn and HTML elements to be layered on top of one another in arbitrary positions.

Sample Element

<pl-overlay width="400" height="400" clip="false">
    <pl-background>
        <pl-drawing width="398" height="398" hide-answer-panel="false">
            <pl-drawing-initial>
                <pl-triangle x1="50" y1="350" x2="350" y2="350" x3="350" y3="50"></pl-triangle>
            </pl-drawing-initial>
        </pl-drawing>
    </pl-background>
    <pl-location left="200" top="375">
        $$3$$
    </pl-location>
    <pl-location left="375" top="200">
        $$3$$
    </pl-location>
    <pl-location left="170" top="170">
        <pl-number-input answers-name="c" show-help-text="false" show-placeholder="false" size="1"></pl-number-input>
    </pl-location>
</pl-overlay>

pl-overlay Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
width float - The width of the overlay canvas in pixels. Required only if no background is specified.
height float - The height of the overlay canvas in pixels. Required only if no background is specified.
clip boolean True If true, children will be cut off when exceeding overlay boundaries.

pl-location Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
left float - The x coordinate of the child element (relative to the left of the overlay)
top float - The y coordinate of the child element (relative to the top of the overlay)
right float - The x coordinate of the child element (relative to the right of the overlay)
bottom float - The y coordinate of the child element (relative to the bottom of the overlay)
valign string middle Specifies the vertical alignment of the contents. Can be one of top, middle, or bottom.
halign string center Specifies the horizontal alignment of the contents. Can be one of left, center, or right.

pl-background Customizations

The pl-background child tag does not have any extra attributes that need to be set. All relevant positioning and sizing information is obtained from the tag's contents.

Details

An overlay is pre-defined as a "overlay area" with a static size. By default, elements that exceed these boundaries will get partially or totally cut off. A background can be specified by wrapping HTML in a <pl-background> tag, in this case the overlay will automatically size itself to fit the background and a width and height do not need to be specified. Floating child elements are wrapped with a <pl-location> tag that specifies the position relative to some defined edge of the overlay area using left, right, top, and bottom. Anything inside the location tag will be displayed at that position. Children are layered in the order they are specified, with later child elements being displayed on top of those defined earlier.

Example Implementations


pl-external-grader-variables element

Displays variables that are given to the student, or expected for the student to define in externally-graded questions. The list of variables should be stored in data['params'] and has the following format:

data["params"]["names_for_user"] = [
    {"name": "var1", "description": "Human-readable description.", "type": "type"},
    {"name": "var2", "description": "...", "type": "..."}
]
data["params"]["names_from_user"] = [
    {"name": "result1", "description": "...", "type": "..."}
]

Sample Element

question.html

<p>The setup code gives the following variables:</p>
<pl-external-grader-variables params-name="names_for_user"></pl-external-grader-variables>

<p>Your code snippet should define the following variables:</p>
<pl-external-grader-variables params-name="names_from_user"></pl-external-grader-variables>

server.py

def generate(data):
    data["params"]["names_for_user"] = [
        {"name": "n", "description": r"Dimensionality of $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{b}$.", "type": "integer"},
        {"name": "A", "description": r"Matrix $\mathbf{A}$.", "type": "numpy array"},
        {"name": "b", "description": r"Vector $\mathbf{b}$.", "type": "numpy array"}
    ]
    data["params"]["names_from_user"] = [
        {"name": "x", "description": r"Solution to $\mathbf{Ax}=\mathbf{b}$.", "type": "numpy array"}
    ]

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
params-name string None Name of variable specification in data['params'] to display, the format for which is given above.

Example implementations

Conditional Elements

pl-question-panel element

Displays the contents of question directions.

Sample Element

<pl-question-panel>
  This is question-panel text.
</pl-question-panel>

Details

Contents are only shown during question input portion. When a student either makes a submission or receives the correct answer, the information between these tags is hidden. If content exists outside of a question panel, then it will be displayed alongside or answer.

Example implementations

See also


pl-submission-panel element

Customizes how information entered by a user is displayed before grading.

Sample Element

<pl-submission-panel>
  This is submission-panel text.
</pl-submission-panel>

Details

Contents are only shown after the student has submitted an answer. This answer may be correct, incorrect, or invalid.

Example implementations

See also


pl-answer-panel element

Provide information regarding the question answer after the student is unable to receive further answers for grading.

Sample Element

<pl-answer-panel>
  This is answer-panel text.
</pl-answer-panel>

Details

Contents are only displayed when the answer panel is requested. Common reasons that trigger the display of this element are:

  • The question is fully correct
  • There are no more submission attempts
  • The time limit for the assessment has expired.

Example implementations

See also


pl-hide-in-panel element

Hide the contents so that it is not displayed in specific panels ("question", "submission", or "answer").

Sample Element

<pl-hide-in-panel submission="true" answer="true">
  This text will be hidden in the submission panel and answer panel.
</pl-hide-in-panel>

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
question boolean false Whether to hide the element contents in the question panel.
submission boolean false Whether to hide the element contents in the submission panel.
answer boolean false Whether to hide the element contents in the answer panel.

Details

Hide the element contents in those panels for which the corresponding attribute is true. This is the reverse of pl-question-panel, pl-submission-panel, or pl-answer-panel, all of which explicitly show the element contents only in a specific panel.

Example implementations

See also


pl-external-grader-results element

Displays results from externally-graded questions.

Sample Element

<pl-external-grader-results></pl-external-grader-results>

Details

It expects results to follow the reference schema for external grading results.

Example Implementations

See also


Deprecated Elements

pl-variable-score element

Display the partial score for a specific answer variable.

Sample Element

<pl-variable-score answers-name="v_avg"></pl-variable-score>

Customizations

Attribute Type Default Description
answers-name string Variable name to display score for.